Table 4

Recommendations for educators and innovators to support Patient TIPS programme development

Programme componentRecommendationSource
PreparationEngage with local Patient and Family Advisory Council to solicit programme volunteersAE
Plan for possible illnesses which may preclude P/F participation (overrecruit) and include back-up P/F candidates in scheduleDW, AE
Consider baseline survey or FG with clinicians and P/F to elicit hopes and concerns regarding collaborative learning and attitudes about medical error and patient safetyAE, FG, SR
Provide OS including principles of collaborative learningFG, OS, DW
Share participant list with P/F and clinicians before training to avoid any problematic pre-existing relationshipsAE, FG, OS
Consider sharing cases with P/F ahead of time to avoid potential emotional trauma from errors similar to personal experiencesAE, OS, DW
Adapt curriculum to specific needs of P/F, and local institution and staffAE, FG, OS DW, SR
Involve P/F in design of curriculum and evaluation strategyFG, OS, DW
FacilitationPay attention to seating and potential effects on discussion dynamicsFG, OS, DW, SR
Create a safe learning environmentFG, OS, DW, SR
Suspend traditional hierarchies to encourage collaborative learningFG, OS, DW, SR
Welcome different perspectivesFG, OS, DW, SR
Help avoid medical jargonFG, OS, DW, SR
Normalize an ‘emotional time out’ if any participant needs to leave the roomAE, OS, DW
Acknowledge medical culture's reluctance to show fallibility, and P/F desire for ‘humanness’FG, SR
Institutional supportEnsure commitment to ‘just culture’45 through a non-punitive approach to human errorAE, SR
Promote P/F-centred educationAE, DW, SR
Offer opportunities for clinicians to participate in learning (time and finance)AE, SR
As educators adapt programme methods for local culture, encourage study of varying methodologies to enrich guided approaches to integrate P/F into safety educationAE
Create opportunities and support for clinicians to put learned lessons into practiceAE, DW, SR
Encourage medical error disclosure and coaching supportAE, DW, SR
  • AE, authors’ experiences; DW, experiences during the educational intervention reflected in debriefings after workshops; FG, focus groups; OS, orientation sessions; P/F, patients/families; SR, survey results; Patient TIPS, Patient-Teachers in Patient Safety.