Table 2

Item-level descriptive results

Safety climateper cent positive NICU means (SD; range) 65.2 (12.8; 33–95); Cronbach's α=0.81
 The culture in this NICU makes it easy to learn from the errors of others16.719.164.2
 Medical errors are handled appropriately in this NICU6.29.884.0
 I know the proper channels to direct questions regarding patient safety in this NICU3.26.890.0
 I am encouraged by others in this NICU, to report any patient safety concerns I may have7.412.280.4
 I receive appropriate feedback about my performance12.315.572.3
 I would feel safe being treated here as a patient7.011.781.4
 It is difficult to discuss errors*24.816.558.7
Teamwork climate—per cent positive NICU means (SD; range) 65.8 (13.8; 36–100); Cronbach's α=0.80
 It is easy for personnel here to ask questions when there is something they do not understand7.17.585.3
 I have the support I need from others in this NICU to care for patients5.67.387.1
 Nurse input is well received in this NICU11.411.976.7
 It is difficult to speak up if I perceive a problem with patient care*
 Disagreements in this NICU are resolved appropriately16.620.962.5
 The physicians and nurses here work together as a well coordinated team10.810.279.0
HSOPSC (adapted)
Overall perceptions of safetyper cent positive NICU means (SD; range) 56.3 (15.4; 18–93); Cronbach's α=0.75
 Patient safety is never sacrificed to get more work done21.414.863.8
 Our procedures and systems are good at preventing errors from happening7.516.576.0
 It is just by chance that more serious mistakes don't happen around here*15.917.766.5
 We have patient safety problems in this NICU*
Teamwork within units—per cent positive NICU means (SD; range) 74.0 (13.1; 44–100); Cronbach's α=0.86
 People support one another in this NICU9.711.778.6
 When a lot of work needs to be done quickly, we work together as a team to get the work done3.75.590.8
 In this unit, people treat each other with respect13.914.571.5
 When one area in this NICU gets really busy, others help out6.48.385.3
Communication openness—per cent positive NICU means (SD; range) 49.3 (12.7; 25–71); Cronbach's α=0.71
 Staff will freely speak up if they see something that may negatively affect patient care8.312.579.2
 Staff feel free to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority21.418.859.8
 Staff are afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right*23.317.159.6
Error feedback and communication—per cent positive NICU means (SD; range) 49.2 (14.4; 18–77); Cronbach's α=0.80
 We are given feedback about changes put into place based on event reports18.426.655.0
 We are informed about errors that happen in this NICU23.118.958.0
 In this NICU, we discuss ways to prevent errors from happening again11.313.874.9
  • The per cent positive (% pos) results include the range and overall mean per cent positive, which is the per cent agreement (agree slightly plus agree strongly) within a given NICU. The per cent negative (% neg) results include the range and overall mean per cent negative, which is the per cent disagreement (disagree slightly plus disagree strongly) within a given NICU.

  • *Item reverse coded.

  • HSOPSC, Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; SAQ, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire.