Table 1

Framework for patient and public engagement in Choosing Wisely campaigns

Nature of engagementDescriptionPossible measures
Partner: Direct involvement in campaign at national levelEstablish partnerships with patient/consumer organisations to develop and implement campaign strategy, materials and initiativesNumber of formal partnerships established
Assess effectiveness of partnerships using partnership analysis tool, for example,
Evaluate reach and impact of campaign:
  • number of patient/consumer organisations that have partnered

  • attitudes/opinions of partner groups members on Choosing Wisely

Per cent or number of recommendations with corresponding user-friendly content (eg, web pages, pamphlets, decision aids)
Evaluate readability, comprehensibility and acceptability of campaign materials using standardised checklists
Monitor distribution and reach of campaign materials and website
Engage: Direct involvement in campaign at specialty levelWork directly with patient and public representatives to incorporate their perspectives and opinions into the campaign’s initiatives and recommendationsPer cent or number of societies who engaged patient/public in:
  • steering group

  • topic selection and recommendation development

  • developing and testing information materials

  • monitoring impact

Inform: Building public awarenessPublic information about overuse, including benefits, harms and uncertainties of tests, treatments and other procedures via print and broadcast media and social mediaPublic opinion surveys to gauge awareness of overuse (eg, before, during and after media campaigns to judge their reach and impact)
Public-reported measures of level/ usefulness of information provided
Tools and checklists to measure the quality of patient information, for example, Health of the Net,, and the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration,
Empower: Promoting better conversations at the individual levelPatients engage in shared decision making with providers to make informed choices about their treatment plansPatient-reported measures of decision quality, including:
  • knowledge (extent to which patients are informed)

  • concordance (match between patients’ goals and treatment received)

  • involvement (extent to which patients are involved in decisions about their care)

For example, The Decision Quality Measures Tool,