Table 1

Characteristics of participants in both phases of the study

Participants’ primary roles and responsibilitiesSettingPhase 1: semistructured
interviews
n=15*
Phase 2: focus
group interviews
n=24†
Improvement advisors with relevant clinical background and healthcare improvement expertise both locally and nationally, external to the local clinical and managerial teamsPrimary care, maternity, neonatal and paediatrics, mental health, healthcare-associated infections, high-risk medicines55
People with a university or similar academic base and perspective, relevant clinical background and healthcare improvement expertise both locally and nationallyPublic health, palliative care, primary care, community engagement, health inequalities, capacity and capability building39
Providers of healthcare services including clinicians in leadership positions in quality and safety who retain a significant role within their routine clinical practice, being involved in delivering healthcare improvement both locally and nationallyPrimary care, mental health, medicine for the elderly, public health, maternity, neonatal and paediatrics25
Providers of social care services in leadership positions in quality and safety who are involved in facilitating improvements both locally and nationally across the integrated health and social care servicesCommunity health and social care partnerships11
Policymakers and commissioners involved in monitoring performance and setting the general direction of quality improvementHealthcare, social care, education and early years32
Patient representatives advising health boards on the most efficient ways of accounting for the views and experiences of the people who use the local servicesCardiac care and rehabilitation, dementia care, maternity care12
  • *All interviews were conducted face-to-face except two academics and one policymaker who were interviewed by telephone.

  • †Two participants in the interviews (one improvement advisor and one academic) also attended the focus groups.