Table 2

Item descriptive statistics and paired t-tests of QAIC (n=123)

QAIC itemItem mean (SD)Paired t-test
PrePostΔP value95% CI
Writing a clear problem statement (goal, aim)2.13 (0.799)3.25 (0.581)1.122 (0.937)0.000*0.955 to 1.289
Applying the best professional knowledge1.85 (0.743)2.84 (0.549)0.984 (0.878)0.000*0.827 to 1.140
Using measurement to improve your skills1.94 (0.833)2.94 (0.591)1.000 (0.878)0.000*0.843 to 1.157
Studying the process2.03 (0.839)3.02 (0.593)0.992 (0.910)0.000*0.829 to 1.154
Making changes in a system1.81 (0.761)2.88 (0.635)1.065 (0.981)0.000*0.890 to 1.240
Identifying whether a change leads to an improvement in your skills2.06 (0.813)3.06 (0.631)1.000 (0.975)0.000*0.826 to 1.174
Using small cycles of change1.86 (0.803)3.25 (0.635)1.390 (1.013)0.000*1.209 to 1.571
Identifying best practices and comparing these with your local practice/skills2.09 (0.843)2.84 (0.635)0.746 (0.905)0.000*0.584 to 0.908
Implementing a structured plan to test a change1.91 (0.868)3.02 (0.713)1.106 (1.007)0.000*0.926 to  1.285
Using the Plan-Do-Study-Act model as a systematic framework for trial and learning1.14 (0.411)3.24 (0.666)2.098 (0.740)0.000*1.965 to 2.230
Identifying how data are linked to specific processes1.80 (0.754)2.79 (0.656)0.984 (0.820)0.000*0.837 to 1.130
Building your next improvement on prior success or failure2.16 (0.803)3.02 (0.633)0.862 (0.908)0.000*0.700 to 1.024
  • 1, not at all; 2, slightly; 3, moderately; 4, extremely.

  • *Statistical significance at 0.05 level (two-tailed).

  • QAIC, Quality Assessment and Improvement Curriculum.