Table 4

Immediate and long-term effects of the events under study for specific pharmacologic groups based on segmented logistic regression models (OR and 95% CI)*

Poor population†Low/middle-income pensionersLow-income non-pensionersMiddle-income non-pensionersHigh-income population†
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Medication for chronic conditions
 Baseline level of IMNA (intercept, Embedded Image ) 0.233 0.206 to 0.264 0.176 0.166 to 0.187 0.193 0.181 to 0.206 0.167 0.152 to 0.184 0.188 0.109 to 0.324
 Baseline trend per week of IMNA (preintervention slope, Embedded Image )‡ 0.994 0.990 to 0.998 0.991 0.989 to 0.993 0.996 0.994 to 0.998 0.9990.995 to 1.0021.0110.990 to 1.033
News release
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
0.808 0.703 to 0.928 1.0340.971 to 1.1010.9550.880 to 1.0350.9670.858 to 1.0921.2750.632 to 2.572
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 1.006 1.002 to 1.011 0.998 0.996 to 1.001 1.002 0.999 to 1.004 1.0010.997 to 1.005 0.971 0.949 to 0.994
Introduction of the fixed copayment**
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
1.379 1.127 to 1.687 1.271 1.166 to 1.386 1.0680.935 to 1.2200.9660.795 to 1.1761.5120.566 to 4.041
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 0.918 0.885 to 0.952 1.036 1.023 to 1.050 1.0040.973 to 1.0361.0350.989 to 1.0831.2081.018 to 1.434
Change in coinsurance scheme**
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
1.0070.820 to 1.236 0.849 0.762 to 0.946 0.9090.760 to 1.0880.7990.616 to 1.036 0.336 0.118 to 0.956
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 1.032 1.021 to 1.043 0.9880.983 to 0.9940.9970.990 to 1.0020.9980.988 to 1.0070.9720.918 to 1.028
Suspension of fixed copayment
  Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
0.669 0.581 to 0.771 0.832 0.779 to 0.888 0.9320.861 to 1.010 0.883 0.787 to 0.992 0.9540.484 to 1.879
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 0.9970.995 to 0.999 0.998 0.998 to 0.999 0.997 0.996 to 0.998 0.998 0.997 to 0.9991.0030.997 to 1.009
Analgesics
 Baseline level of IMNA (intercept, Embedded Image ) 0.361 0.340 to 0.384 0.262 0.253 to 0.270 0.283 0.279 to 0.289 0.298 0.290 to 0.307 0.302 0.231 to 0.396
 Baseline trend per week of IMNA (preintervention slope, Embedded Image )‡ 1.002 1.000 to 1.004 0.9990.999 to 1.0001.0010.999 to 1.0011.0000.999 to 1.0011.0060.996 to 1.017
News release
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
0.860 0.802 to 0.922 0.9990.962 to 1.038 0.968 0.947 to 0.989 0.9740.938 to 1.0121.0310.711 to 1.495
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 1.0000.998 to 1.003 0.990 0.989 to 0.992 0.997 0.997 to 0.998 0.997 0.996 to 0.999 0.986 0.972 to 0.999
Introduction of the fixed copayment**
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
1.289 1.152 to 1.435 1.459 1.380 to 1.542 1.06 1.018 to 1.103 1.0440.974 to 1.1201.2850.633 to 2.492
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 0.968 0.948 to 0.988 1.067 1.059 to 1.076 1.032 1.022 to 1.042 1.038 1.020 to 1.056 1.0460.922 to 1.187
Change in coinsurance scheme**
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
0.9460.843 to 1.0620.9760.915 to 1.041 0.929 0.877 to 0.984 1.0150.916 to 1.1241.0850.514 to 2.287
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 1.031 1.025 to 1.036 0.983 0.979 to 0.985 0.998 0.997 to 1.000 0.996 0.993 to 0.998 0.9900.963 to 1.018
Suspension of fixed copayment
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
0.654 0.610 to 0.701 0.859 0.828 to 0.891 0.887 0.869 to 0.906 0.789 0.762 to 0.817 0.8290.587 to 1.172
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 0.994 0.994 to 0.995 0.9980.998 to 0.999 0.999 0.999 to 0.999 1.0001.000 to 1.0011.0010.998 to 1.005
Penicillins
 Baseline level of IMNA (intercept, Embedded Image ) 0.157 0.134 to 0.183 0.116 0.106 to 0.126 0.097 0.093 to 0.103 0.105 0.096 to 0.114 0.112 0.052 to 0.243
 Baseline trend per week of IMNA (preintervention slope, Embedded Image )† 1.006 1.001 to 1.011 0.9980.996 to 1.0010.9990.998 to 1.0010.9970.994 to 1.0011.0200.990 to 1.051
News release
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
0.739 0.617 to 0.885 0.9550.862 to 1.0580.9430.887 to 1.0031.0190.912 to 1.1380.6230.195 to 1.992
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 1.0020.995 to 1.008 0.995 0.991 to 0.998 0.9990.996 to 1.0010.9960.992 to 1.0000.9830.942 to 1.025
Introduction of the fixed copayment**
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
1.2450.952 to 1.6270.9180.781 to 1.0791.0890.974 to 1.2181.1070.900 to 1.3622.1550.453 to 10.248
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 0.9630.914 to 1.015 1.058 1.033 to 1.084 0.9930.966 to 1.0210.9850.957 to 1.0591.0940.797 to 1.502
Change in coinsurance scheme**
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
1.0200.745 to 1.396 0.952 0.786 to 1.154 1.1060.940 to 1.3021.0070.739 to 1.3410.5240.070 to 3.907
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 1.0211.008 to 1.0350.9840.975 to 0.9930.9970.993 to 1.0021.0010.993 to 1.0080.9940.923 to 1.071
Suspension of fixed copayment
 Immediate effect of the event (level change in IMNA rate from
previous week, Embedded Image
0.706 0.594 to 0.838 0.9660.876 to 1.0651.0250.968 to 1.022 0.900 0.816 to 0.993 0.5160.205 to 1.299
 Long-term effect of the event (gradual change in slope, per week, Embedded Image 0.995 0.993 to 0.997 0.9990.998 to 1.0000.9990.999 to 0.999 1.002 1.001 to 1.003 1.009 1.000 to 1.018
  • *Models were adjusted for the characteristics of patients, FPs and PC centres as well as for seasonality (week of the month and month of the year).

  • †Includes pensioners and non-pensioners.

  • ‡Bold numbers indicate statistically significant difference from zero.

  • §This row reports the level change in IMNA prevalence (OR)—that is, the increase/decrease in IMNA prevalence—immediately after the event week; bold numbers indicate statistically significant differences (95% confidence probability).

  • ¶This row reports the period trend in OR per 1-week increase. Bold numbers indicate statistically significant differences between each period slope and initial period slope.

  • **The end of the third period and the beginning of the fourth period are not the same for all population profiles. For non-pensioner only profiles (40% and 50%) the period change was in the 83rd week, for pensioner only profiles (40%) the period change was in the 88th week, and for pensioner and non-pensioner profile groups the period change was in the 85th week.

  • FP, family physician; IMNA, initial medication non-adherence; PC, primary care.