Table 1

Patient characteristics

CharacteristicControl unitsIntervention units
Preimplementation
n=309
Postimplementation
n=244
Preimplementation
n=304
Postimplementation
n=791
Age, mean (SD)63.7 (16.4)58.9 (16.2)61.2 (16.3)61.3 (17.1)
Female, %47.0059.8057.2060.00
Service, %
 Medicine75.4065.2054.6060.70
 Surgery24.6034.8045.4039.30
Preadmission location*, %
 Home9.101.2010.5015.00
 Clinic13.9031.2021.1017.30
 Rehab0.700.40015.00
 Other hospital8.109.401.301.00
 Emergency department68.3055.7024.0031.20
 Unidentified02.1043.1019.60
Previous ED visits in the past year, %
 077.7076.6070.4078.10
 1–419.7021.7025.0018.80
 5 or more2.601.604.603.00
Previous admissions in the past year, (%
 054.7037.7079.1077.90
 1–442.1050.8019.1020.50
 5 or more3.2011.501.601.60
Number of preadmission medications, %
 0–319.1013.9027.3023.60
 4–629.8027.9024.7025.20
 7–1029.4027.5024.0025.20
 11 or more21.7030.7024.0026.00
DRG weight, mean (SD)1.49 (0.75)1.70 (0.87)1.48 (0.81)1.55 (0.89)
Elixhauser comorbidity score, %
 ≤012.9018.0016.5020.40
 1–526.9028.7041.8035.60
 6–1034.6026.2032.6032.40
 >1025.6027.109.2011.60
Marital status, %
 Married or living as if married46.6038.9056.2054.90
 Separated, widowed, divorced33.3020.5025.0026.40
 Single, never married20.1040.6018.8018.70
Insurance, %
 Medicare56.6047.3040.1047.80
 Medicaid9.7020.103.004.70
 Private25.6028.7028.6032.70
 Self-pay, other8.104.1028.3014.80
Length of stay*, %
 0–4 days72.8052.0052.6066.80
 5 or more days27.2045.904.3014.50
 Unknown02.1043.1018.70
Discharge destination*, %
 Home83.8080.7043.7565.50
 Rehab11.0012.706.257.50
 Other hospital3.902.906.255.40
 Death1.301.600.300.25
 Unidentified02.1043.4021.40
  • *Data not available from site 5 for these fields. Site 5 did not have any control units.

  • DRG, diagnosis-related group; ED, emergency department.