Table 1

Summary of the common development process

Main challengeSolutions used by the hospitals
Phase 1: data inventoryMaking a comprehensive inventory is challenging because of the one-sidedness of available data (quantitative; externally driven).Improve utilisation of existing data sources; manipulate existing data to fit demand; extend current data collection activities.
Phase 2: dashboard contentDeveloping useful content is challenging due to the differing needs and desires of users.Involve users in development process; ensure a proper mix of process, outcome and action indicators; install data warehousing systems.
Phase 3: dashboard designDesigning an easily comprehensible dashboard is challenging due to users’ differing executive duties, cognitive abilities and analytical skills.Match graphics with content purpose; display real-time data; use colour codes; provide textual explanation; add customisation functionalities.
Phase 4: integrating evaluationIntegrating structural evaluation is challenging due to the users’ lack of time, high workload and irregular schedules.Embed dashboards in quality management cycles; accountability meetings; policy meetings.
Phase 5: improving flexibility and connectivityImproving is challenging due to the static nature and predetermined content of dashboards.Connect dashboards to external data systems/dashboards; connect to other internal dashboards; establish interchangeable dashboard content.