Table 1

Comparing methods for developing person-centred services

Initial focusA. ProcessB. SolutionC. User need or problem
Key assumptionsExisting service meets a defined customer need but production process can be improvedA new service could better meet the needs of existing or new customers, which may be independent of current processesCustomers have unmet needs which are not well defined but could be met by new services with new processes that have yet to be developed
Circumstances where method is most appropriateEstablished service that meets users needs when delivered appropriately. There is already a service with users that with their needs
There is a defined production process but it is not consistently achieving the desired outcomes
There is an idea for a new service, but no defined processes
There are no existing customers
The fit between the solution and a user need or problem has not been confirmed
There are a set of potential customers who are poorly served but whose needs are not well understood
There is no idea for a new service and there are no defined processes to build on
Desired endpointRefined production processWorking version of new service, proposed processesCustomer need defined, new service defined, service prototype generated
Key stepsDefine sources of unnecessary variation or waste and analyse root cause
Devise strategy to improve process, plan and implement
Measure outcome
Standardise approach if effective or modify if not
Build minimally functional version of service based on initial concept
Test with potential users
Modify service or target group to find fit between user need and proposed service
Test ways to expand
Interview and observe users and immerse in their context to create empathy
Consider analogous situations from other industries
Characterise problem and generate wide range of solutions
Narrow options and present mock-ups to users to identify which are promising
Early championManufacturingTechnology startups and softwareIndustrial design