Table 1

Characteristics of study admissions

CharacteristicAdmissions=1503
Mean/median /
n (% of admissions)
Missing values
n (% of admissions)
Demographic
Age (years)Median: 75
IQR: 58–85
0
Gender (female)693 (46.1%)0
Socioeconomic status, ranked using English Indices of Deprivation 2015
– Index of Multiple Deprivation75*
Median: 50†
IQR: 30–79
6 (0.4%)
Ethnic origin (white)1208 (85.9%)†96 (6.4%)
Patient related
Previous allergy582 (38.8%)†1 (0.07%)
Body mass index (kg/m2; healthy weight range 18.5–24.9)Median: 24.9†
IQR: 21.4–29.1
341 (22.7%)
Number of hospital admissions in previous 6 monthsMedian: 0
IQR: 0–1
0
Primary diagnosis:
Endocrine and metabolic82 (5.5%)0
Nervous system and mental disorders149 (9.9%)0
Cardiovascular system315 (21.0%)0
Respiratory system332 (22.1%)0
Gastrointestinal system144 (9.6%)0
Genitourinary system144 (9.6%)0
Musculoskeletal-integumentary systems93 (6.2%)0
All other categories244 (16.2%)0
Number of comorbiditiesMedian: 4
IQR: 2–5
0
History of dementia161 (10.7%)0
Length of hospital stay (days)Median: 5
IQR: 2–12
0
Medicines related
Medicines reconciliation completed1292 (86.0%)0
Number of medicines‡Median: 8
IQR: 5–10
0
Parenteral medicines administration1008 (67.1%)0
Use of high-risk medicines:
Systemic antimicrobials (excluding aminoglycosides and glycopeptides)937 (62.3%)0
Antidepressants351 (23.4%)0
Anticoagulants312 (20.8%)0
Antidiabetic medication299 (19.9%)0
Epilepsy medicines227 (15.1%)0
Therapeutic heparin222 (14.8%)0
Antiarrhythmics150 (10.0%)0
Opioids145 (9.6%)0
Aminoglycosides and glycopeptides105 (7.0%)0
Antipsychotics (excluding clozapine)92 (6.1%)0
Other high-risk medicines (clozapine, antiretrovirals, medicines for Parkinson’s disease)40 (2.7%)0
Theophylline and aminophylline38 (2.5%)0
Immunosuppressants21 (1.4%)0
Cytotoxics14 (0.9%)0
Lithium6 (0.4%)0
Laboratory results
Renal function—estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2; normal >90)§Median: 73†
IQR: 53–99
9 (0.6%)
Liver disease¶164 (10.9%)0
Serum albumin (g/L; reference range 35–50)Mean: 33.0†
SD: 6.0
26 (1.7%)
Serum potassium (mmol/L; reference range 3.5–5.3)Mean: 4.4†
SD: 0.62
30 (2.0%)
Serum sodium (mmol/L; reference range 133–156)Mean: 137.2†
SD: 5.2
3 (0.2%)
White cell count (109/L; reference range 3.2–11.0)Median: 9.8†
IQR: 7.5–12.8
6 (0.4%)
Platelet count (109/L; reference range 120–450)Median: 244†
IQR: 192–312
8 (0.5%)
  • *Deprivation rank based on patients’ postcode, shown as the ranked position as a percentage of all neighbourhoods in England (where one is the most deprived).

  • †Results for patients without missing data.

  • ‡Number of ‘regular’ medicines prescribed on the first full day of admission to hospital (ie, excluding ‘when required’ and ‘once only’ medicines, dietary products, non-medicated topical products, wound dressings).

  • §Glomerular filtration rate estimated using modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation.36

  • ¶Liver disease defined as alanine aminotransferase/alkaline phosphatase and/or bilirubin ≥3 times normal range and/or documented liver disease.