Table 1

Risk of bias assessment in individual randomised controlled trials

Random sequence generationAllocation concealmentBlinding of clinicians and data collectorsBlinding of outcome assessorsIncomplete outcome data (for clinicians)Selective outcome reportingOther sources of bias
Coylewright et al 13 2016 and Coylewright et al 14 2017 (nested study)LowLowHighUnclear/ not reportedHighHighLow
Hess et al 15 2016LowLowHighLowLowHighHigh
Hess et al 16 2012LowLowHighLowLowHighHigh
Perestelo-Pérez et al 17 2016LowUnclear/not reportedHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
Nannenga et al 18 2009LowLowHighLowLowLowLow
Thomson et al 19 2007LowLowHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
Warner et al 20 2015LowUnclear/not reportedHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
Mathers et al 21 2012LowLowHighHighLowLowLow
Karagiannis et al 23 2016LowLowHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
Mullan et al 24 2009LowLowHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
Denig et al 25 2014LowLowHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
LeBlanc et al 26 2015, OsteoporosisLowLowHighHighUnclear/ not reportedLowHigh
Montori et al 27 2011LowLowHighLowLowLowLow
LeBlanc et al 28 2015, DepressionLowUnclear/not reportedHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
Loh et al 29 2007LowLowHighUnclear/not reportedUnclear/not reportedLowLow
Légaré et al 30 2012LowLowHighLowLowLowLow
Légaré et al 31 2011LowLowHighLowLowLowLow
Little et al 44 2015
(parent study of Anthierens et al 32 2014
LowLowHighUnclear/ not reportedLowLowLow
Walczak et al 33 2017LowLowHighUnclear/not reportedHighHighHigh
Leighl et al 34 2011LowLowHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowLow
Ozanne et al 35 2007Unclear/not reportedUnclear/not reportedHighUnclear/not reportedLowLowHigh
Whelan et al 36 2003LowUnclear/not reportedHighUnclear/not reportedUnclear/not reportedUnclear/not reportedLow
Bekker et al 37 2004LowLowHighHighLowLowLow
  • Low: low risk of bias (green); unclear/not reported: risk of bias was unclear or not reported (yellow); high: high risk of bias (red).