Table 1

Baseline resident characteristics after matching (figures show per cent of residents unless otherwise stated)

Residential care homesNursing homes
PrincipiaMatched controlsPrincipiaMatched controls
Total number of residents (residencies)203203365365
Total number of unique residents203166365263
Median age, years (IQR)88.46 (83.72, 93.34)89.04 (85.22, 92.33)85.63 (80.80, 90.22)86.72 (82.04, 90.13)
Charlson index, based on health conditions recorded in 2 years prior to moving to the care home, mean (SD)1.88 (1.53)1.81 (1.57)2.52 (1.95)2.45 (1.87)
Number of conditions linked to frailty recorded in 2 years prior to moving to the care home, mean (SD)2.03 (1.66)1.89 (1.56)2.19 (1.58)2.03 (1.40)
 Anxiety or depression18.2%15.8%15.6%20.5%
 Cognitive impairment50.2%48.3%58.1%54.0%
 Functional dependence*25.1%24.1%23.8%15.9%
 Fall or significant fracture53.2%49.3%52.1%46.8%
 Mobility problems22.7%22.2%26.8%27.9%
 Pressure ulcers7.9%6.9%8.8%16.4%
Other health conditions recorded in the 2 years prior to moving to the care home that were considered predictive of hospital readmission
 Metastatic cancer with solid tumourFreq <10Freq <107.7%6.0%
 Other malignant cancer9.4%9.4%19.5%15.1%
 Chronic pulmonary disease13.3%9.4%20.0%17.5%
 Congestive heart failure15.8%10.3%16.2%23.8%
 Diabetes with chronic complicationsFreq <10Freq <102.7%2.7%
 Hemiplegia or paraplegiaFreq <10Freq <104.1%4.7%
 Moderate or severe liver diseaseFreq <10Freq <10Freq <10Freq <10
 Other liver diseaseFreq <10Freq <102.7%Freq <10
 Peripheral vascular diseaseFreq <10Freq <107.9%7.9%
 Renal diseaseFreq <10Freq <10Freq <10Freq <10
Hospital use prior to moving to the care home, mean (SD)
 Potentially avoidable emergency admissions in prior year0.45 (0.68)0.41 (0.66)0.51 (1.03)0.57 (0.93)
 Potentially avoidable emergency admissions in year before prior year0.12 (0.41)0.11 (0.41)0.16 (0.53)0.17 (0.49)
 Emergency admissions in prior year1.61 (1.39)1.49 (1.08)1.76 (1.56)1.78 (1.51)
 Emergency admissions in year before prior year0.59 (1.06)0.49 (0.92)0.66 (1.22)0.69 (1.05)
 A&E attendances in prior year1.65 (1.63)1.70 (1.35)1.68 (1.52)1.76 (1.68)
 Hospital bed days in prior year24.29 (27.32)24.70 (27.38)45.78 (46.63)43.99 (43.37)
 Elective admissions in prior year0.24 (0.50)0.17 (0.43)0.43 (1.19)0.37 (1.17)
 Outpatient attendances in prior year3.45 (4.04)2.60 (4.17)4.51 (7.18)3.78 (5.84)
  • All percentages are based on number of residents (residencies). Percentages are suppressed where there was an underlying frequency of less than 10. See online supplementary file 3 for an assessment of the balance between Principia and the matched control groups.

  • *Functional dependence indicates a change in discharge destination from hospital to an institution providing more social and functional support than at hospital admission.

  • A&E, Accident & Emergency.