Table 2

The commonly used practical tools that staff perceived to facilitate the delivery of safe patient care

Practical toolPositively deviant wardsComparison wards
Verbal handovers
Handover sheets
Safety briefing
Board round
MDT meeting
Ad-hoc meetings
Ward-based AHPs*
AHPs write in medical notes*OT and PhysioPhysioPhysioOT and Physio
Bedside boards
Ward boards
Patient activities
Intentional rounding
Innovative strategiesDischarge to assessDementia care, rotating discharge nurseMorning routineDiabetes and sepsis trolleys
  • Ward pseudonyms are constructed using T (number)=the NHS Trust identifier and W (number)=the ward identifier.

  • *Explicit differences between the positively deviant and comparison wards were observed in relation to these two strategies. However, having ward-based AHPs and enabling AHPs to write in the medical notes were not considered to be positively deviant as they will have required implementation at a Trust (organisational) level. Comparison wards within Trusts 1 and 2 are also highly likely to use these ‘tools’.

  • AHPs, allied health professionals; MDT, multidisciplinary team; NHS, National Health Service; OT, occupational therapy; Physio, physiotherapy.