Table 2*†

Hazard of death associated with low staffing levels during the first 5 days (adjusted and unadjusted)

Staffing exposure
(per day over the first 5 days)
HR*P values95% CIAdjusted HR†P values95% CI
RN staffing below ward mean1.030.0091.01 to to 1.06
NA staffing below ward mean1.04<0.0011.02 to 1.071.04<0.0011.02 to 1.07
Admissions per RN >125% of ward mean1.050.0241.01 to to 1.09
Admissions per NA >125% of ward mean1.000.8730.96 to to 1.04
NEWS on admission1.30<0.0011.28 to 1.311.26<0.0011.24 to 1.27
SHMI risk score1.95<0.0011.90 to 2.001.87<0.0011.81 to 1.92
Emergency3.89<0.0013.16 to 4.791.240.0850.97 to 1.60
  • Df 41; AIC 61 889.87; BIC 62 376.13.

  • Unconditional model adjusting for ward (random effect) only.

  • Adjusted for ward, SHMI risk score, NEWS on admission and mode of admission (emergency vs elective). For full model see online supplementary table a.

  • AIC, Akaike information criterion; BIC, Bayesian information criterion; NA, nursing assistant; NEWS, National Early Warning Score; RN, registered nurse; SHMI, Summary Hospital Mortality Indicator.