Table 1

Unadjusted OR and aOR of a negative interaction among all QuIS rated interactions (n=3076)

Characteristic (number, % with characteristic)Univariate* OR (95% CI)Adjusted for all predictors* aOR (95% CI) (n=3076)
Patient characteristics
Age (per unit increase)1.03 (1.01 to 1.06)1.03 (1.00 to 1.06)
Male (n=688, 22%)1.10 (0.49 to 2.47)1.56 (0.63 to 3.88)
With dementia (n=801, 26%)1.32 (0.79 to 2.22)1.07 (0.63 to 1.83)
Interaction characteristics
Visitors present (n=191, 6%)0.11 (0.04 to 0.33)0.13 (0.04 to 0.41)
Patient agitated (n=92, 3%)6.70 (3.34 to 13.43)6.08 (2.97 to 12.48)
Staff type
 Registered nurse (n=925, 30%)1.001.00
 Student nurse (n=52. 2%)0.98 (0.29 to 3.34)1.07 (0.31 to 3.69)
 HCA (n=1,017, 33%)0.95 (0.66 to 1.37)0.95 (0.66 to 1.38)
 Doctor (n=88, 3%)1.10 (0.47 to 2.55)1.21 (0.51 to 2.89)
 Allied HP (n=76, 2%)1.17 (0.51 to 2.67)1.28 (0.55 to 2.95)
 Nurse/HCA not specified (n=618, 20%)0.88 (0.58 to 1.34)0.94 (0.61 to 1.44)
 More than 1 member of staff (n=300, 8%)2.30 (1.45 to 3.65)2.38 (1.48 to 3.83)
Observation session characteristics
Number of patients per RN(P=0.097)(P=0.035)
 ≤6 (n=1120, 36%)0.97 (0.44 to 2.14)0.90 (0.32 to 2.47)
 >6 to <8 (n=1218, 40%)1.001.00
 ≥8 (n=740, 24%)2.32 (0.98 to 5.51)2.82 (1.10 to 7.22)
Number of patients per HCA(P=0.145)(P=0.056)
 <7 (n=1108, 36%)0.50 (0.22 to 1.15)0.38 (0.14 to 0.99)
 7 to 8 (n=1193, 39%)1.001.00
 >8 (n=775, 25%)1.10 (0.49 to 2.47)1.24 (0.50 to 3.10)
Ward
 A (reference)1.001.00
 B0.58 (0.19 to 1.75)0.49 (0.12 to 1.93)
 C1.50 (0.50 to 4.47)0.85 (0.23 to 3.18)
 D0.75 (0.24 to 2.32)0.93 (0.27 to 3.27)
 E0.61 (0.20 to 1.88)0.61 (0.15 to 2.38)
 F0.51 (0.15 to 1.73)0.56 (0.15 to 2.03)
  • *All models include observation session and patient as random effects.

  • HCA, healthcare assistant; HP, health practitioner; QuIS, Quality of Interaction Schedule; RN, registered nurse; aOR, adjusted OR.