Table 4

Key data collection methods of the reviewed articles

AuthorQuantitative measuresQualitative data
Allan et al46Precourse and postcourse programme evaluation questionnaires.
Aveling et al39Non-participant observation, interviews and documentary analysis.
Carroll et al25Ethnographic observations, video footage of reflexive feedback sessions.
Falcone et al40Multidisciplinary team simulation evaluation tool.
Fransen et al47Composite outcome of low Apgar score, severe postpartum haemorrhage, trauma due to shoulder dystocia, eclampsia and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.
Hor et al36Semistructured interviews, ethnographic observations and reflexive focus groups.
Iedema et al37Preimplementation and postimplementation surveys to measure nurse perceptions of new handover protocol.
Analysis of video footage scored on specific categories proposed by emergency department clinicians.
Focus groups, ethnographic observation and reflexive focus groups.
Iedema and Carroll41Interviews, documentary analysis, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback sessions.
Iedema et al38Interviews, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback sessions.
Iedema et al42Analysis of unit spending costs per patient admission.Interviews, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback sessions.
Iedema et al43Focus groups, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback meetings.
Lehner et al44Precourse and postcourse evaluation surveys.
Patterson et al45Number and type of latent safety threats identified during simulations.
Blinded video review of teamwork behaviours using a modified Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills scale.
Electronic survey to measure participant assessment of the course.
Patterson et al48Number of days without a patient safety event in the emergency department.
Knowledge tests at baseline, postintervention and re-evaluation,
Safety Attitudes Questionnaire scores.
Ross et al49Premodule and postmodule questionnaire scores to assess participant self-confidence.Simulation observations and follow-up staff interviews post-training.