Table 3

Key features of the reflexive elements of each study

AuthorAim of reflexivityFacilitationDuration of reflexive feedback
Allan et al46To uncover system faults or cognitive processes leading to suboptimal teamwork.Trained physician and nurse facilitators.
Video footage used.
No information provided.
Aveling et al39To allow a safe space to share challenges and working practices, and generate locally appropriate solutions.External non-clinical facilitator.No information provided.
Carroll et al25To engage healthcare professionals in problem-solving their own communication difficulties.Researcher facilitation.
Video footage used.
90 min.
Falcone et al40To emphasise team performance and communication, and reinforce appropriate care principles.No information provided.
Video footage used.
30 min.
Fransen et al47To allow deeper analysis of performance by group discussion.Two facilitators.
Video footage used.
30 min.
Hor et al36To provide space for discussion of how clinical spaces impacted on communication practices.Researcher-facilitated.
Video footage used.
No information provided.
Iedema et al37To form and articulate views about what is essential information that must be communicated and what are the critical processes involved in the handover.No information provided about facilitation.
Video footage used.
60–90 min.
Iedema and Carroll41To capture staff insights and ideas to strengthen the organisational and communicative dimensions of healthcare provision.No information provided about facilitation.
Video footage used.
No information provided.
Iedema et al38To allow practitioners the space to raise questions about taken-for-granted infection control behaviours and scrutinise their own practice.No information provided about facilitation.
Video footage used.
No information provided.
Iedema et al42To allow staff to identify and address previously unrecognised environmental risk factors.No information provided about facilitation.
Video footage used.
No information provided.
Iedema et al43To discuss and address the strengths and weaknesses of handover practice.Researcher facilitation.
Video footage used.
No information provided.
Lehner et al44To evaluate and improve communication practices during paediatric trauma incidents.Two-person multidisciplinary and multiprofessional instructor team.
Video footage used.
45 min.
Patterson et al45To identify latent safety threats and subsequent multidisciplinary problem-solving.Group assessment of performance.10 min.
Patterson et al48To improve situational awareness and sharing of shared mental models.Researcher facilitation.
Video footage used.
No information provided.
Ross et al49To focus on non-technical skills including communication and improving a shared mental model.Clinicians and trained professionals from a dedicated simulation centre.45 min.