Table 1

Approaches for scaling simulation-based teamwork training

Overcoming technological limitations
Screen-based simulationA type of simulation ‘presented on a computer screen using graphical images and text, similar to popular gaming format, where the operator interacts with the interface using keyboard, mouse, joystick or other input device’.4 Technology is used ‘to provide feedback to, and track actions of learners for assessment, eliminating the need for an instructor’.4
Telesimulation‘A process by which telecommunication and simulation resources are utilised to provide education, training and/or assessment to learners at an off‐site location, where an off-site location is considered a distant site that would preclude education, training and/or assessment without the use of telecommunication resources’.25
Observed simulationObserving live or prerecorded video interactions of real people without the use of telecommunication.14
Overcoming limited access to trained facilitators
Scripted facilitation‘A cognitive aid that may promote faculty development efforts and augment debriefing skills particularly in those educators who are still solidifying their debriefing expertise’.26
Within-team debriefing‘A debriefing led by the team itself rather than an external instructor’.19