Table 1

TDF domains and their explanations (reprinted with permissions from Cheung et al 44 and Patey et al 45)

KnowledgeExisting procedural knowledge, knowledge about guidelines, knowledge about evidence and how that influences what the participants do
SkillsCompetence and ability about the procedural techniques required to perform the behaviour
Social/professional role and identityBoundaries between professional groups (ie, is the behaviour something the participant is supposed to do or someone else’s role?)
Beliefs about capabilitiesPerceptions about competence and confidence in doing the behaviour and how that influences their behaviour
OptimismWhether the participant’s optimism or pessimism about the behaviour influences what they do
Beliefs about consequencesPerceptions about outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of performing the behaviour and how that influences whether they perform the behaviour
ReinforcementPrevious experiences that have influenced whether or not the behaviour is performed
IntentionA conscious decision to perform a behaviour or a resolve to act in a certain way
GoalsPriorities, importance, commitment to a certain course of actions or behaviours
Memory, attention and decision processesAttention control, decision-making, memory (ie, is the target behaviour problematic because people simply forget?)
Environmental context and resourcesHow factors related to the setting in which the behaviour is performed (eg, people, organisational, cultural, political, physical and financial factors) influence the behaviour
Social influencesExternal influence from people or groups to perform or not perform the behaviour
How the views of colleagues, other professions, patients and families, and doing what you are told, influence the behaviour
EmotionHow feelings or affect (positive or negative) may influence the behaviour
Behavioural regulationWays of doing things that relate to pursuing and achieving desired goals, standards or targets
Strategies the participants have in place to help them perform the behaviour
Strategies the participants would like to have in place to help them