Table 4

Key data collection methods of the reviewed articles

AuthorQuantitative measuresQualitative data
Allan et al 46 Precourse and postcourse programme evaluation questionnaires.
Aveling et al 39 Non-participant observation, interviews and documentary analysis.
Carroll et al 25 Ethnographic observations, video footage of reflexive feedback sessions.
Falcone et al 40 Multidisciplinary team simulation evaluation tool.
Fransen et al 47 Composite outcome of low Apgar score, severe postpartum haemorrhage, trauma due to shoulder dystocia, eclampsia and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.
Hor et al 36 Semistructured interviews, ethnographic observations and reflexive focus groups.
Iedema et al 37 Preimplementation and postimplementation surveys to measure nurse perceptions of new handover protocol.
Analysis of video footage scored on specific categories proposed by emergency department clinicians.
Focus groups, ethnographic observation and reflexive focus groups.
Iedema and Carroll41 Interviews, documentary analysis, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback sessions.
Iedema et al 38 Interviews, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback sessions.
Iedema et al 42 Analysis of unit spending costs per patient admission.Interviews, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback sessions.
Iedema et al 43 Focus groups, ethnographic observations and reflexive feedback meetings.
Lehner et al 44 Precourse and postcourse evaluation surveys.
Patterson et al 45 Number and type of latent safety threats identified during simulations.
Blinded video review of teamwork behaviours using a modified Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills scale.
Electronic survey to measure participant assessment of the course.
Patterson et al 48 Number of days without a patient safety event in the emergency department.
Knowledge tests at baseline, postintervention and re-evaluation,
Safety Attitudes Questionnaire scores.
Ross et al 49 Premodule and postmodule questionnaire scores to assess participant self-confidence.Simulation observations and follow-up staff interviews post-training.