Table 1

Descriptive statistics on the 7521 general practices included in the analysis

Rates of ED attendance per 1000 populationMeanSD25th percentileMedian75th percentile
Total ED attendances256.589.8195.1247.6311.4
Definition 1: self-referred discharged (Tammes et al)5 693.650.456.786.9124.0
Definition 2: GP treatable (NHS Digital)1533.723.617.228.244.0
Definition 3: no treatment and no-follow up (McHale et al)1615.512.86.812.520.5
Primary care quality measures
 Proportion of clinical Quality and Outcomes Framework points achieved0.9540.0700.9430.9770.994
 Proportion of patients who would recommend the practice0.7740.1240.7010.7930.869
 Proportion of patients reporting good overall experience of GP surgery0.8520.0920.8030.8700.921
 Proportion of patients who could see their preferred GP0.6200.1730.5000.6300.750
 Proportion of patients reporting easy phone access0.7310.1680.6250.7610.865
 Proportion of patients able to get an appointment to see or speak to someone0.8470.0810.8010.8600.906
 Proportion of patients who were able to get same day appointment0.3670.1450.2580.3500.458
Control variables
 Size of the registered population74594444408666299965
 Proportion of registered population aged 0–4 years0.0600.0160.0490.0580.069
 Proportion of registered population aged 5–15 years0.1260.0270.1120.1240.139
 Proportion of registered population aged 16–44 years0.3880.0860.3330.3730.426
 Proportion of registered population aged 45–54 years0.1430.0210.1340.1460.156
 Proportion of registered population aged 55–64 years0.1130.0260.0970.1160.130
 Proportion of registered population aged 65–74 years0.0930.0350.0680.0940.117
 Proportion of registered population aged 75–85 years0.0550.0220.0390.0550.069
 Proportion of registered population aged 85+ years0.0220.0120.0140.0210.029
 Income deprivation score0.1760.1100.0870.1500.245
 Proportion of registered patients of UK white ethnicity0.7640.2540.6490.8790.949
 Proportion of registered patients unemployed0.0510.0470.0170.0390.072
 Response rate to General Practitioner Patient Survey0.4120.1100.3300.4190.496
 Atrial fibrillation prevalence (proportion of registered patients)0.0200.2540.0110.0170.021
 COPD prevalence (proportion of registered patients)0.0270.6690.0130.0180.024
 Asthma prevalence (proportion of registered patients)0.0781.6600.0510.0590.067
 Heart failure prevalence (proportion of registered patients)0.0090.1380.0050.0070.009
 Coronary heart disease prevalence (proportion of registered patients)0.0420.8530.0250.0320.040
 Distance from GP practice to nearest type one ED (km)6.8586.6772.5034.4979.014
 Rate of attendance at type 1–3 EDs (per 10 patients)0.8301.0120.1050.3881.253
 Number of GPs5.3493.3883.0004.9157.099
Variables included in sensitivity analyses
 Rated good or outstanding by CQC on first inspection0.8280.3781.0001.0001.000
 Weighted proportion of patients who could see their preferred GP0.5900.1710.4690.5950.715
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CQC, Care Quality Commission; ED, emergency department; GP, general practitioner.