Table 1

Evidence-based recommendations and related risk points

Risk pointsRecommendations and tips to address risk pointsFor whom
ManagementTeam leadersTeam members
Uncertainty or doubt that team can succeed; poor collective efficacy 1. Recognise wins and successes—large and small.
Communicate wins within the team.X
Share success stories across teams.X
Congratulate teammates when they successfully overcome a challenge.XX
Competing or inconsistent mental models ; narrowing of attention 2. Ensure the team sustains shared mental models (SMM).
Conduct quick, periodic prebriefs and huddles.X
Ensure thoughtful cross-shift/cross-team handoffs.XX
Ask questions when you become unsure about priorities or expectations.X
Manifestation of schisms, fault lines ; silos 3. Don’t forget the people behind the scenes.
Acknowledge the contributions of those in supporting roles.X
Recognise people who help your team (eg, who find resources or deal with a problem).XX
Insufficient monitoring, vigilance, backup; narrowing of attention ; low psychological safety 4. Emphasise and promote team mutual monitoring.
Begin a shift or prebrief with a reminder about what to monitor.X
Proactively ask if you can help, particularly with teammates who may be in an unfamiliar role.XX
Thank people when they offer feedback or assistance, even if you didn’t need it.XX
Discomfort with speaking up; lack of psychological safety ; failing to ask questions or admit concerns 5. Take actions that build and sustain psychological safety.
Acknowledge where you can improve and admit when you have questions.XXX
Thank others when they admit a mistake or offering a dissenting view.XXX
Narrowing of attention; overfocus on self; reduced vigilance 6. Help team members address concerns with their ‘home team’ (if possible).
Seek ways to help team member’s family (financial, informational or emotional assistance).X
Be a good listener to teammate’s problems.XX
Setbacks adversely affecting readiness to perform subsequent tasks; low team resilience 7. Consciously boost team resilience.
Anticipate, plan for and attempt to address stressors, surges and likely setbacks.XX
Quickly identify what is not working and encourage adaptations.XX
Apologise for dysfunctional behaviours that occurred under stress.XX
Smartly and ‘intentionally’ shift the team from normal to emergency modes as appropriate.X