Table 1

Decision-making principles of choice architecture included in the scenario-based questionnaire

Anchoring biasPeople tend to rely heavily on the first piece of information, or ‘anchor’, when making decisions.
Compromise effectA less ‘attractive’ or less preferable choice increases the attractiveness of another, alternative choice.
Default effectThe ‘default’ is the result when no explicit decision for an alternative option is made.
Framing effectPeople tend to prefer certainty in a gain frame (ie, saving lives) and uncertainty in a loss frame (ie, losing lives).
Habit formationPeople tend to adhere to their routine activities and resolutions if they engage them on a regular basis.
Multiple alternatives biasA multiplicity of options may lead to significant conflict and uncertainty, resulting in lack of a decision or a response of ‘I don’t know’ or ‘let me get another opinion’.
Relative risk biasPeople tend to interpret relative risk differently when presented as percentages and when presented as ratios. People often interpret ratios more strongly than percentages.
Social normsRules or behaviours that are considered socially acceptable by a cohort or group. It is understood by all members of the group that they should abide by these norms.