Table 3

Results of single variable* logistic regression for adverse events (n=1319 patients)

CharacteristicNn (%)ORP value
 Male66819 (2.8)Ref
 Female65114 (2.2)0.73 (0.36–1.46)
Both parents (or single parent) speak English or French0.44
 Yes126031 (2.5)Ref
 No592 (3.4)1.74 (0.35–5.42)
Both parents (or single parent) are immigrants†0.22
 No124433 (2.7)Ref
 Yes710 (0.0)0.26 (0.00–1.84)
Paediatric Canadian Triage Acuity Scale0.23
 1, 2 Resus/emergent841 (1.2)Ref
 3 Urgent66422 (3.3)1.96 (0.50–17.75)
 4, 5 Semiurgent/non-urgent57110 (1.8)1.07 (0.25–10.04)
After hours0.47
 No (08:00 to 17:00)73516 (2.2)Ref
 Yes (>17:00 to <08:00)58417 (2.9)0.64 (0.22–2.48)
 No (Mon–Friday)91529 (3.2)Ref
 Yes (Saturday–Sunday)4044 (1.0)0.35 (0.11–0.87)
 Discharged123532 (2.6)Ref
 Admitted661 (1.5)0.87 (0.10–3.39)
 Left without being seen or against medical advice180 (0.0)1.00 (0.01–7.65)
Indwelling line or urinary catheter, or dialysis catheter or respiratory support needed0.74 (0.06–5.52)0.83
 No129433 (2.6)Ref
 Yes250 (0.0)0.74 (0.06–5.52)
Mental health visit0.04
 No130131 (2.4)Ref
 Yes182 (11.1)5.68 (1.09–19.41)
Patient has at least one chronic medical condition0.89
 No104326 (2.5)Ref
 Yes2767 (2.5)1.06 (0.43–2.29)
Arrival by ambulance
 No126329 (2.3)Ref
 Yes564 (7.1)3.39 (1.05–8.74)
Initial ED location0.94
 Main ED32410 (3.1)Ref
 Ambulatory zone/minor treatment area99523 (2.3)0.62 (0.08–79.79)
Subspecialty services involved‡
 No125030 (2.4)Ref0.12
 Yes543 (5.6)2.78 (0.73–7.73)
Primary assessor was ED staff§0.38
 No76922 (2.9)Ref
 Yes52411 (2.1)0.73 (0.34–1.47)
Number of ED staff physicians involved in patient’s care§0.59
 1121231 (2.6)Ref
 2692 (2.9)1.42 (0.28–4.40)
 3+30 (0.0)5.43 (0.04–60.75)
Continuous variables
 Patient level
Age in years, median (IQR)11.87 (1.29–15.48)<0.001
 Linear term0.96 (0.87–1.05)
 Quadratic term1.02 (1.01–1.04)
Time to see doctor (hours), median (IQR)1.13 (0.78–1.95)0.97 (0.64–1.24)0.87
Number of patients waiting to be seen when registered, median (IQR)14 (11-20)0.55
 Linear term1.04 (0.98–1.10)
 Quadratic term1.00 (0.99–1.00)
ED census at time of registration, median (IQR)31 (27–42)1.02 (0.99–1.06)0.18
Number of patients awaiting admission to the ward, median (IQR)2 (1–3)1.01 (0.81–1.23)0.49
LOS in the ED (hours) (time to discharge OR time to admission to floor), median (IQR)3.08 (1.87–4.28)1.10 (0.99–1.20)0.08
  • *All logistic regression analyses adjusted for shift (day, evening, night) to account for oversampling of night shifts.

  • †N is less than 1319 as this data were not collected for four enrolled patients.

  • ‡N is less than 1319 as this does not include the 15 patients who left without being seen. Patients who were seen directly by subspecialty service (n=11) and those patients who were seen first by ED-specific services but for whom a referral to a subspecialty service was also made (n=43) were deemed as having subspecialty service involvement.

  • §N is less than 1319 as includes only the 1293 patients seen by ED-specific services (11 were seen by subspecialty services directly and 15 left without being seen).

  • ¶N is less than 1319 as this includes only patients seen by an ED-specific service physician (9 of the 1293 patients seen by ED-specific services were managed by a mental health crisis worker with no ED physician involvement).

  • ED, emergency department; LOS, length of stay.