Table 1

Surgical processes and outcomes quality control measures: type and description

WHO Surgical Safety ChecklistProcessA set of surgical safety standards which cover the pre-operative, peri-operative and post-operative phase of surgical delivery in the operating theatre.16
Case reviewsProcessA review of clinical information and relevant procedures to assess if they were performed appropriately on a case-by-case basis.75
SupervisionProcessSupervisory visits by health professionals/specialists external to the hospital, or internal supervision of new staff by senior surgical staff to monitor and strengthen surgical skills.4
Surgical mortality and morbidity reportsOutcomeFacilitated discussions of clinical outcomes and surgical adverse events, so as to review the performance of the surgical team.76
Audits of surgical adverse eventsOutcomeStructured approach for documenting, evaluating and providing regular feedback to staff regarding unwanted medical occurrences in patients, resulting from medical care (diagnosis and treatment), so as to improve future care.77