Table 1

QI and design tool integration

Purpose in improvement workQI toolDesign toolIntegration
Overarching structure guiding the processModel for ImprovementDouble DiamondApply ‘Double Diamond’ model of diverging and converging thinking to fuel PDSA, both to better define the problem in a human-centred way, create consensus among teams on the true problem to solve, foster greater creativity and faster tests of change during solutioning and ensure solutions are meeting a human need.
Creating a problem definitionModel for Improvement: 3 fundamental questionsValue prop canvasUse the value prop canvas to clearly define the benefits of solving a problem for different stakeholders in terms of jobs to be done, pains and gains.
Understanding current processProcess mapUser journeyApply user journeys alongside process maps to understand the emotions experienced by users during different process steps to define pain points, understand how pains might influence behaviour and identify unmet needs in the current system.
Understanding failure pointsFishbone diagram, failure mode and effects analysis and Pareto chartsPersonas and empathy mapsGenerate user personas to understand the most typical users, their needs and common pain points. Use empathy maps to aid QI teams in deeply understanding user experiences, emotions and behaviours in the current process in relation to the ultimate goals.
Measuring for improvementStatistical process control chart‘Powerful Questions’testingIncorporate structured interviews to capture early, directional feedback on whether a new intervention is meeting user needs. Detect important failures before a measured process deviation is apparent.
Rapid testing and learningPDSA cyclePrototypingCreate low-fidelity versions of solutions (prototypes), test them with users to learn about feasibility/acceptability and use learnings and failures to refine solutions.
Gathering feedback for future tests of changeDebrief/huddle‘I like, I wish, I wonder’Foster new cycles of improvement by asking users and teams to creatively reflect on the intervention in both practical and aspirational terms.
  • QI, quality improvement.