Table 1

Embedding family and boundary spanning professionals in everyday practice

GroupReliability-enhancing contributionsResearch-based practices to embed in care team
Patient personal support (eg, family, friends, personal caregiver)Unique insight into when a patient is “not right” or “a little off” in ways clinicians may miss and be signs of medical errors (eg, adverse drug events) or unexpected deterioration (eg, unresponsiveness to treatment)Leaders solicit and share family perspectives21
Establish family-centred rounding and routines13
Bedside coordinators to amplify patient voice23
Localise PFACs to units and/or conditions24
Boundary-spanning professionals (eg, chaplains, social workers)Elevate the social determinants and patient/family voice regarding factors that could threaten patient safety
Providing emotional and psychological support for the patient, family and team delivering care
Leaders (publicly) recognise the value of chaplains and social workers to care quality and safety20
Embed these professionals in routines (rounding) and roles (bedside coordinator, PFAC leader) that bridge patient and those delivering care23–25
Create forums where they support direct care providers emotional and psychological needs (eg, processing trauma)20
  • Created by the authors.

  • PFAC, patient and family advisory committee.