Table 2

Multilevel logistic regression results for in-hospital mortality for early-period and late-period COVID-19 admissions

FeatureValueEarly period (March, April)Late period (May, June, July)
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age: OR per year<45 years1.08 (1.07 to 1.09)<0.00011.10 (1.07 to 1.14)<0.0001
45+ years1.05 (1.04 to 1.07)0.00021.05 (1.01 to 1.08)0.003
GenderMale1.44 (1.39 to 1.50)<0.00011.40 (1.29 to 1.52)<0.0001
Female11
Ethnic group
Black or Black British1.07 (0.97 to 1.17)0.1711.09 (0.77 to 1.52)0.637
Asian or Asian British1.21 (1.12 to 1.31)<0.00011.11 (0.92 to 1.33)0.268
White11
Other including Mixed1.10 (0.99 to 1.21)0.0750.89 (0.66 to 1.21)0.470
Unknown1.14 (1.07 to 1.21)0.00011.15 (0.99 to 1.34)0.066
Deprivation quintile1 (least deprived)11
21.07 (1.00 to 1.14)0.0640.98 (0.85 to 1.12)0.726
31.08 (1.01 to 1.15)0.0251.13 (0.99 to 1.29)0.078
41.10 (1.03 to 1.18)0.0040.97 (0.85 to 1.11)0.660
51.12 (1.05 to 1.20)0.0011.13 (0.98 to 1.30)0.087
6 (unknown)0.76 (0.55 to 1.06)0.1040.49 (0.17 to 1.46)0.202
Method of admissionEmergency11
Non-emergency0.87 (0.72 to 1.05)0.1490.54 (0.35 to 0.83)0.005
Admission source
Home11
Transfer from acute hospital1.77 (1.39 to 2.26)<0.00011.77 (1.00 to 3.12)0.051
Transfer from non-acute hospital1.14 (0.74 to 1.75)0.5591.99 (0.88 to 4.50)0.097
Transfer from unknown hospital0.99 (0.90 to 1.10)0.9010.89 (0.70 to 1.13)0.325
Other/unknown1.16 (1.04 to 1.28)0.0061.22 (1.02 to 1.46)0.034
Emergency admissions in previous 12 months011
11.12 (1.06 to 1.18)<0.00011.14 (1.03 to 1.27)0.010
21.15 (1.08 to 1.23)<0.00011.07 (0.94 to 1.21)0.324
3+1.11 (1.04 to 1.18)0.0011.09 (0.97 to 1.22)0.151
Admission monthMarch1
April0.78 (0.74 to 0.81)<0.0001
May1
June0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)0.010
July0.63 (0.49 to 0.79)<0.0001
ComorbidityDiabetes1.17 (1.12 to 1.22)<0.00011.09 (0.99 to 1.19)0.080
Hypertension0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.0130.82 (0.75 to 0.89)<0.0001
Coronary heart disease1.40 (1.32 to 1.48)<0.00011.50 (1.36 to 1.66)<0.0001
COPD1.04 (0.99 to 1.08)0.1081.11 (1.01 to 1.21)0.023
Obesity1.60 (1.49 to 1.72)<0.00010.92 (0.77 to 1.10)0.363
Cancer1.47 (1.36 to 1.58)<0.00011.80 (1.58 to 2.05)<0.0001
Renal disease1.29 (1.23 to 1.36)<0.00011.37 (1.24 to 1.51)<0.0001
Dementia1.41 (1.32 to 1.50)<0.00011.28 (1.13 to 1.45)<0.0001
COVID-19 daily admissions: OR per admission<4 admissions0.96 (0.92 to 1.01)0.0871.07 (1.02 to 1.12)0.009
4+ admissions1.01 (0.96 to 1.05)0.0511.02 (0.96 to 1.07)0.088
Bed occupancyPer 10 extra occupancies1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.1441.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.051
COVID-19 bed occupancyPer 10 extra occupancies1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)0.0901.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.908
COVID-19 MV bed occupancy: OR per bed<4 beds1.00 (0.97 to 1.02)0.9121.03 (0.98 to 1.08)0.225
4+ beds1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)0.9400.99 (0.94 to 1.04)0.122
COVID-19-related staff absencesPer 10 extra absences1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.5021.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.546
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MV, mechanical ventilation.