Table 1

Population characteristics

Population characteristicLevelWhole population
n=40 261
Primary outcome n=1200
Age (years)Median (IQR)*
Mean
47 (32–61)
48.4
77 (63–86)
73.3
Gender (n, %)Male17 5645
(43.6%)
710
(59%)
Comorbidity (n, %)Cardiovascular disease850
(2.1%)
80
(6.6%)
Chronic respiratory disease10 315
(25.6%)
320
(26.7%)
Diabetes4245
(10.5%)
275
(22.8%)
Hypertension7275
(18.1%)
510
(42.6%)
Immunosuppression
(including steroid use)
3320
(8.2%)
350
(29.3%)
Active malignancy460
(1.2%)
55
(4.6%)
Obesity6205
(15.4%)
105
(8.8%)
Pregnant685
(1.7%)
Renal impairment415
(1%)
45
(3.7%)
Smoker11 160
(29%)
1200
(35.9%)
Stroke230
(0.6%)
20
(1.8%)
Number of drugs used
(n, %)
017 830 (44.3%)230 (19.2%)
1–517 300 (43%)620 (51.5%)
6–104550 (11.3%)315 (26.5%)
11 or more585 (1.5%)40 (3.3%)
Clinical frailty scale
(N, %)
Unknown6610 (16.4%)605 (50.3%)
Aged <65 years31 860 (79.1%)330 (27.4)
1–3200 (0.5%)10 (0.9%)
4–6670 (1.7%)60 (5.1%)
7–9925 (2.3%)195 (16.3%)
Ethnicity (n, %)Unknown8950 (22.2%)410 (34%)
Asian or Asian British4335 (10.8%)90 (7.3%)
Black or black British850 (2.1%)15 (1.3%)
Mixed540 (1.3%)10 (0.8%)
Other ethnic groups615 (1.5%)10 (1%)
White24 975 (62%)670 (55.7%)
Deprivation index (n, %)Unknown2360 (5.9%)135 (11.2%)
1–214 355 (35.7%)330 (27.6%)
3–47365 (18.3%)205 (17.1%)
5–66005 (14.9%)180 (15%)
7–85835 (14.5%)195 (16.1%)
9–104345 (10.8%)155 (13%)
Index triage category (n, %)Ambulance dispatch/Urgent clinical assessment15 030 (39.6%)890 (74.2%)
Ambulance response3955 (9.8%)450 (37.6%)
Urgent follow-up GP
assessment
555 (1.4%)45 (0.4%)
Urgent follow-up COVID-19 clinical assessment11 235 (27.9%)395 (32.7%)
Self-care/Non-urgent assessment24 335 (60.4%)310 (25.8%)
Self-care12 925 (32.1%)85 (7.2%)
Non-urgent GP assessment880 (2.2%)10 (0.1%)
Further non-urgent COVID-19 assessment10 510
(26.1%)
215
(17.7%)
Outcome (n, %)Death910
(2.3%)
910
(75.6%)
Deaths due to COVID-19 (including after 30 days)710
(1.8%)
580
(48.3%)
Organ support
(within 30 days)
425
(1.1%)
425
(35.2%)
Hospitalisation (n, %)ED attendance8165
(20.3%)
840
(70%)
Inpatient admission4490
(11.2%)
840
(69.9%)
Confirmed hospital diagnosis of COVID-19†In ED or as inpatient at 30 days2370
(5.9%)
650
(54%)
Number of NHS 111 contacts in study period (n, %)136 480 (90.6%)1060 (88.2%)
23035 (7.5%)120 (9.7%)
3 or more750 (1.9%)25 (2.1%)
Time to primary outcome from index contact—up to and including (n, %)72 hours320
(0.8%)
320
(26.5%)
7 days670
(1.7%)
670
(56%)
  • *IQR.

  • †Unrestricted community testing for suspected COVID-19 infection was only available from 18 May 2020. Confirmed diagnosis is based on inpatient PCR testing or clinical diagnosis in hospital.

  • ‡Suppressed due to small numbers.

  • ED, emergency department; NHS, National Health Service.