logTotal | Model 1 (CCG deficit) | Model 2 (CCG demonstrator) | Model 3 (NHS hospitals) |

Phase I | 0.69*** (0.67 to 0.71) | 0.57*** (0.56 to 0.59) | 3.90*** (3.79 to 3.99) |

EBI | −13.07*** (−14.74 to 11.40) | −12.03*** (−13.75 to –10.31) | −9.69*** (−12.48 to –6.90) |

EBI×phase I | 0.13*** (0.11 to 0.14) | 0.10*** (0.09 to 0.11) | 0.48*** (0.39 to 0.56) |

EBI×X | 2.26 (−0.02 to 4.53) | −1.24 (−3.43 to 0.94) | −2.79 (−6.85 to 1.27) |

Phase I×X | −0.30*** (−0.32 to to 0.28) | −0.05*** (−0.07 to –0.02) | −3.08*** (−3.19 to –2.98) |

EBI×phase I×X | −0.06*** (−0.08 to to 0.04) | 0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02) | −0.35*** (−0.45 to –0.26) |

Constant | 4.15*** (4.05 to 4.25) | 4.18*** (4.08 to 4.29) | 2.84*** (2.76 to 2.93) |

Observations | 6750 | 6750 | 16 559 |

Units of observation | 135 CCGs | 135 CCGs | 382 hospitals |

Co-efficients are reported as percentages, and can be understood as follows:

*phase I*is the percentage difference in change in volumes between the treatment and control groups.*EBI*is the percentage difference in volumes for all procedures before and after the implementation of the EBI programme.*EBI*×*phase I*is the percentage DiD of volumes before and after the implementation of the EBI programme between the treatment and control groups.*EBI×X*is the average percentage DiD in volumes for all procedures before and after the implementation of the EBI programme between different organisational characteristics defined by*X. Phase I×X*is average percentage difference in changes in volumes for the treatment group for different organisational characteristics defined by X.*EBI×phase I×X*is the average percentage DiD in volumes before and after the implementation of the EBI programme for the treatment group between different organisational characteristics defined by*X*. In model 1,*X*is 1 for CCGs which posted a deficit in financial year 2018/19, and 0 for those which did not. In model 2,*X*is 1 for CCGs which were part of the demonstrator community, and 0 for those which were not. In model 3,*X*is 1 for NHS hospitals and 0 for independent sector providers. 95% CIs in parentheses. All models used fixed effects, therefore errors are clustered at the CCG or hospital level. This table was created by the coauthors of this manuscript.*P<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

CCG, clinical commissioning group; EBI, evidence-based interventions programme; NHS, National Health Service.