Table 4

Final internal consistency reliability analysis results

Composite measuresCronbach’s Alpha*
Alpha if item deleted
HospitalMedical office
Empowerment to Improve Efficiency (three items) 0.89 0.86
We are involved in making decisions about changes to our work processes.0.850.80
We are encouraged to come up with ideas for more efficient ways to do our work.0.850.80
We are given opportunities to try out solutions to workflow problems.0.850.83
Efficiency and waste reduction (three items) 0.81 0.78
We try to find ways to reduce waste (such as wasted time, materials, steps and so on) in how we do our work.0.730.69
In our (unit/office), we are working to improve patient flow.0.720.67
We focus on eliminating unnecessary tests and procedures for patients.0.770.75
Patient Centeredness and Efficiency (three items) 0.75 0.78
In our unit, we take steps to reduce patient wait time.0.700.76
We ask for patient or family member input on ways to make patient visits more efficient.0.640.66
Patient and family member preferences have led to changes in our workflow.0.670.68
(Hospital: Management) (Medical office: Owner, Managing Partner, Leadership) Support for Improving Efficiency and Reducing Waste (four items) 0.88 0.85
(My supervisor, manager or clinical leader…/Owners, managing partners, leadership…)
Takes action to address workflow problems that are brought to his or her attention.
Recognises us for our ideas to improve efficiency.0.830.77
Provides us with reports on our(unit/office)performance.0.880.82
Places a high priority on doing work efficiently without compromising patient care.0.850.84
  • *Overall Cronbach’s alpha for each composite measure is shown in bold.