Table 1

Intervention components

TypeIntervention components
Core components Training: Being a facilitator, processes of facilitation, toolkit of techniques, knowledge of the patient problem and national guideline requirements. Review of hospital policy, VS triggers for escalation and nursing interventions.
Identification of ward barriers and enablers: individual, discipline, ward and organisation.
Monthly ward audits with feedback of results to nurse managers and staff via posters, presentations and discussions of areas for improvement.
Monthly HFLIP facilitation support by external expert facilitator reviewing audit results, how to respond to ward issues, questions and concerns.
Toolkit of facilitation techniques (Harvey and Kitson, 2015) provided to HFLIPs: Clarify and engage; assess and measure; action and implementation; review and share. Techniques included: interactive education, case presentations, individual discussions, reminder posters, working with clinicians during assessments, interdisciplinary discussions and ward audits with feedback. Each facilitator used the same techniques.
Adaptable componentsFacilitation techniques were selected from the toolkit and tailored depending on the context such as patient management problems, ward audit results, ward staff needs and their availability.
  • HFLIPs, hospital facilitators; VS, vital signs.