Table 2

Characteristics of feedback to EMS professionals identified in this systematic review

Feedback typeFeedback on professional practiceEmbedded ImagePatient outcome feedback
Audit and feedbackPostevent debriefingPeer-to-peer feedbackIncident-prompted feedbackAudit and patient outcome feedbackPatient outcome feedback
Illustrative exampleFeedback to EMS staff and ambulance stations by the research team on adherence to corticosteroid administration60Feedback to EMS staff in a group setting following a resuscitation attempt using data collected from audit forms and defibrillator downloads with input from other EMS staff and the clinical training team127Feedback to an EMS professional in a group setting on an everyday professional situation described by the feedback recipient with other EMS professionals offering their reflections and ideas on how to best achieve efficient professional care73Feedback to EMS staff and ambulance stations on the observed trends of reported patient safety incidents, including patient outcomes and clinical management58Feedback to EMS staff on their performance of EMS stroke quality measures, ambulance times and the patients’ final diagnosis at hospital discharge63Feedback to EMS dispatchers by EMS staff on scene regarding patients’ primary condition when the ambulance arrived on scene, non-transport by the ambulance and level of priority59
Feedback interventions reviewed, n (%)31 (74)2 (5)3 (7)1 (2)4 (10)1 (2)
Data(Most commonly) AggregatedIndividual or aggregateIndividualIndividualIndividual or aggregateIndividual
ContentClinical performance metrics and adherence to theseEMS treatment and management planThe views of peers on the EMS treatment and management planAnalysis of EMS patient safety incidentsClinical performance metrics and outcomes of patientsOutcomes of patients (eg, diagnosis, hospital treatment, management plan)
Set-upFormalFormalFormal or informalFormalFormalFormal or informal
ComparisonExplicit benchmarksMay include explicit benchmarksIndirect comparison with other cliniciansNo explicit comparisonMay include explicit benchmarksNo explicit comparison
(Anticipated) EffectsChange clinician behaviour: improve clinical performanceChange clinician behaviour: improve clinical performance, provide supportChange clinician behaviour: improve patient management skills, provide peer supportChange clinician behaviour: reduce patient safety incidentsChange clinician behaviour: improve clinical performance, improve clinicians’ diagnostic abilityChange clinician behaviour: Improve clinicians’ diagnostic ability and patient management skills
  • EMS, emergency medical service.